My apologies for the long delay until this fourth part was published. I have been teaching in Seattle for the previous two weeks, and have just started to settle in Cupertino for my Apple internship, and I had very few spare moments in my hands.
In Part 3, we discussed how generic shims modify key parts of the system, usually through API hooking or undocumented flags, in order to provide compatibility with a variety of applications. We looked at shims such as the Windows 9x Heap Manager implementation in NT,Â and several re-direction and reflection APIs, as well as even some security bypassing shims. Today, we’ll take a look at how certain applications have specific shims implemented specifically just for them. We can find these with CDD easily, by noticing that the Shim name is usually a program name, as well as looking in the DLL which implements it. Finally, specific shims never have any descriptive text describing them. While looking through the Shim dump, I’ve chosen this one (arbitrarly):
Any continued analysis on this shim must be done through reverse engineering, since we have no hint as to what this shim is attempting to do. By using IDA on the DLL specified, one can notice it is a series of C++ classes, each which represent a specific shim (there are of course other classes such as CString and the generic Shim Engine initialization classes). The prefix for the specific shims seems to be “NS”, so it was easy to locate our target of interest: NS_CorelSiteBuilder. Every shim class also has an initialization function that gets called, and is responsible for initializing the class and its hooks. This is usually called IniitalizeHooksMulti. In the disassembly of this function, pay special attention to loc_714F3691. This is where this class initializes the API hooks that make up this specific shim (other specific shims can also have other types of hooks, such as patches or COM hooks). The tagHOOKAPI structure contains the information required to patch an API, and one can clearly see that SetWindowTextA inside user32.dll is being hooked, and re-directed to NS_CorelSiteBuilder::APIHook_SetWindowTextA.
Now the actual hook can be looked at, and I’ve provided an analyzed and commented disassembly here. This is a pretty simple hook, and seems to check on whether the window handlw and window text that are beingÂ sent as argumentsÂ match the previous window handle and window text that the shim had saved durinng the last call. If they do match, it will simply return TRUE (success) without actually calling the original API, otherwise, the hook will save the window text that’s being set as the “old” window text (so that when the hook is called again, it will compare against this name now), and then perform a call to the original API (in tagAPIHOOK+0xC) with the unmodified arguments.
In other words, the whole point of this shim is to “absorb” SetWindowTextA calls to the Corel Site Builder window if the new text that’s being set matches the previous text, and simply return success. The reason on why such a shim would be necessary is left as an excercise to the reader.
In the next article, I will release the first version of the CDD utility which I’ve used when showing some of the Shims available, and document some of its uses.